Fish farming is a major type of aquaculture. It involves commercial rearing of fish in tanks or enclosures. There are many species of fish but not all these are suitable for farming in Nigeria.
Fishes that are mostly farmed in Nigeria are those that thrive well in Nigeria due to either favorable rearing condition or ready market available for such. Fish farming in nigeria is a major source of income for both small and medium scale entrepreneurs.
Because of these, the species of fish that are mostly reared commercial by the Nigerian farmer are salmon, tilapia and catfish. The most common fish species are
Methods of fish farming in Nigeria
The methods of fish farming in Nigeria are through extensive and intensive aquaculture.
Extensive aquaculture is where fishes are read under natural water like stream or river while an intensive aquaculture is where fishes are reared in containers and are fed with fish feeds.
Fish species that are farmed in Nigeria
The most popular species of fish that are farmed in Nigeria are provided below:
- Cat Fish
Although Catfish is not the specie of fish that is mostly eaten in Nigeria, it is the most cultivated specie of fish. The reason for this is that it is the specie of fish that is the easiest to farm. Many people go into catfish farming in Nigeria because it is the simplest type of fish specie to farm.
Tilapia is the second most reared fish specie in Nigeria after cat fish. Tilapia naturally lives in fresh shallow water. Tilapias are as well very easy to farm and are more widespread in the Nigerian market. It has fast and rapid yield.
Mackerel is the specie of fish that is mostly eaten by the Nigerian population but unfortunately, it is not farmed. It is the specie of fish that is popularly known as Titus. All the mackerel fish in the Nigerian market are caught straight from the Nigerian waters. Mackerel grow in salty water.
Many farmers are currently experimenting to find out whether it is possible to create artificial environment similar to the sea water to sea if it will be possible to rear tilapia commercially in Nigeria.
Until a conclusion is reached on the finding, if you plan to go into fish farming in Nigeria, it is better to focus only on catfish and tilapia if you hope to make more financial gain.
Materials you need for Fish Farming
- Get a secure Land
Fish can be reared in any location because it does not constitute any form of danger to the environment. Secure a cheap land that you can pay. The size of land you will acquire depends on your start-up capital and the size of farm you want to establish. An average size of fish farm can be done in a plot of land.
Nevertheless, if you want to go for a bigger plot of land, it is perfectly okay so long as you can afford it.
- Build your fish Ponds
Get an expert to build the fish pond for you. Alternatively, you can go for a survey in another fish farm and obtain the construction plan to help you with an idea of how to go about with your own. The plumbing work must be properly done to ensure proper drainage.
- Construct a Borehole
To do fish farming successfully, you need sufficient supply of water. Adequate water supply will determine to a great extent the success of your fish farm. Inadequate supply of water may lead to massive death and failure due to the fact that the water in the fish pond ought to be changed on constant interval.
You need a natural source of water or borehole to be able to efficiently do fish farming. Rain water and tap water are not good for fish farming.
Other things you require to setup a fish farm is water reservoir like an overhead tank, good quality juvenile fish from other fish farm and proper prior training to make sure you have all it takes to manage your farm when you are properly set up.